Introduction

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Criminology Paper

            Differential association is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland states that criminal behavior is learned through interactions with others. It’s individual-level. The main concepts are criminal behavior is learned; learning takes place in the process of interacting with others; and most of the learning takes place in the interaction of relatives and friends. The theory shows that undefinitions of favorable/unfavorable to crime, techniques for committing crime, opportunities for committing crime are learned from others.

            For the reading “Money, Motivation, and Street Culture”, I divided the fast cash motivation into two parts. The first one is “need”. Eighty of 81 offenders who spoke directly to the issue of motivation said that they did robberies simply because they needed money (p.72). It means they are not doing robbery for fun, they do it because they need money. They need the cash for basic necessities such as food or shelter. They need to survive. It’s absence of guardians from Routine activities perspective, because if the guardians took care of their kids, educated them, they won’t be out there doing illegal things.

The second motivation is “opportunity”. Offenses motivated by serendipity rather than basic human need (p.72). the effective example is from one offender said “I see you walking’ down the street and you look like you got some money in your pocket, I’m gonna take a chance and see. It’s just natural…if you see an opportunity, you take that opportunity…” But both need, and opportunity cannot be the excuses for the crime. Perhaps the most central motivation is mindset. From the reading, it is called “life as party”, the enjoyment of good times with minimal concern for obligations and commitments that ate external to the immediate social setting (p.73). This is because they see no future in their life, they view their future prospects as bleak and see little point in long-range planning. Obviously, their reaction of law violation is favorable over unfavorable, because they choose to rob, no matter for what reason. They are sensitive of the opportunity for committing crime. Using routine activities perspective, the offenders are good at finding available targets, it means even when they don’t have the thinking of robbing, they will rob someone if they saw that person’s pocket. They would seize any opportunity to committing the crime.

            Another reason they rob is about appearances. To be seen as “with it, one must flaunt the material trappings of success (p.73). It’s like you were walking down the street, and saw a person wearing a shiny necklace, or a gorgeous dress, you realized you want them too, but you don’t have the money, thus, you are going to get that money. The relentless pursuit of high living quickly becomes expensive, and that’s when robbery happens. Using routine activities perspective, the offenders are motivated by basic necessities, inner desire and better appearances, they choose to commit crime.

            After analysis the motives, one question need to be cleared. That is why robbery? Why not have a job, or why not borrow? If they go get a job, they don’t need to rob. From the book, there are three reasons. In fact, the offenders’ need is so pressing and immediate that legal work is untenable. They cannot wait for a month to get the salary, they need the money now, or let’s say that they need the money whenever they want it. Moreover, the jobs realistically available to them, almost all of whom were unskilled and poorly educated, which company will want them? Lastly, job requires one to take orders, conform to a schedule, minimize informal peer interaction, show up sober… All these high standards they can’t achieve, and robbery allowed them to flaunt their independence and escape for the rigors of legal work. In the interview, twenty-five of the 75 unemployed respondents claimed they would stop robbing if someone gave them a “good job”. However, the realistic question is that if they would keep the job for long or completely stop robbing after having a high-paying job.

            Since the offenders don’t have job, people will not lend money to them because they are not going to give the money back. Also, unemployed, unskilled, and uneducated person often do not expect to solve their fiscal troubles by borrowing. Borrowing is a short-term solution, and loans granted must be repaid (p.75). Another reason of not borrowing from others is that they have beliefs – men should be self-sufficient; the mere prospect of borrowing was repugnant. Some people do robbery is because robbery is safer that other crimes such as burglary.

            The more important for why they rob, because robbery was their main line. They learned when they were little. “I have never been able to steal, even when I was little, and they would tell me just to be the watch man…”(p.75). from the Sutherland’s differential association theory, the offender grew up in the environment of crime, the offender’s parents or relatives maybe the main character of his learning object. The offender learned the techniques from them about how to rob, how to catch the opportunity, eventually the offender took the same path as his/her family. Since the offender grew up in this environment, all the things he/her learned from people beside he/her was illegal, he can’t do nothing but learn because he/her didn’t know nothing else.

DISNEY CASE STUDY

#1. In the business world, there are many methods to access companies’ performance. One of the most popular portfolio analysis methods, developed by the Boston Consulting Group, requires that firms classify all their products or services into a two-by-two matrix.

Stars: high-growth markets and high market share products. The company distributes films under the Walt Disney Pictures, Pixar, Marvel, Lucasfilm, and Touchstone banners. This segment generated $9441 million, accounting for 17% of the company’s revenues and growth of 28% in 2016. We can say that Film Studios is a Star in the BCG matrix that will bring both growth and profits to Disney.

Cash Cows: low-growth markets but high market share products. Walt Disney Parks and Resorts is one of the world’s leading providers of family entertainment experiences. According to the fiscal 2016, the total consolidated revenues of Disney are $55,632 million, and Disney Parks and Resorts are $16,974 million, it’s about one third of total revenues. From the DIS’s Competition by Segment and its Market Share, Parks & Resorts include Cruise and Universal Theme Parks have the highest market share which is 25.09%. Thus, we can conclude the Cash Cow is Disney’s Parks and Resorts.

Question Marks: high-growth markets but low market shares. Disney interactive has product as Disney’s Internet, mobile app, social media and games. The interactive media industry has been evolving and is expected to grow in the future. It is an infrastructure based primarily on e-commerce and smartphones. Internet users are increasing worldwide every year, which means opportunities for the interactive media industry are expanding. Also, smart phone users are predicted to increase, it will contribute to the growth of interactive industry. Disney Consumer Products is a subsidiary segment with hundreds of categories from toys, books, clothing, etc. From the DIS’s Competition by Segment and its Market Share, Consumer Products have the market share of 10.94%, while Interactive media only have the market share of 1.24%. Hence, Consumer Products and Interactive Media count as Question Marks.

Dogs: low-growth markets and low market shares. In 2017, The company’s revenue declined 3% year-over-year (y-o-y) to $12.8 billion, primarily due to a seasonal fall in the company’s Studio revenues and a continued decline in the Media Network segment. Disney’s Media Networks revenue for the fourth quarter declined 3% y-o-y to $5.5 billion, while its segment operating income decreased 12% y-o-y to $1.5 billion. This was driven by a decline in both Broadcasting and Cable Networks. The TV industry will not be the mainstream as new generations spend less time watching TV and more time on the Internet. In the BCG matrix we consider TV Networks as Dog.

In recent years, the streaming service market has been expanding, and the creation of the “Disney+” has become an important step for Disney to enter the streaming service market. Disney Plus is an upcoming streaming service for almost everything it creates. The firm said, on average, investors are expecting Disney Plus to hit 7 million subscribers by the end of the year and for the service to grow to 17 million in 2020. Shares of Disney are up 23.6% year-to-date. We can assume Disney plus will become a Star in the near future.

#2. Walt Disney has a sustainable competitive advantage that leverages the uniqueness of the products offered by the entertainment, media and park industries. Their competitive strategy is based on making its products different from the competitors. Disney is one of the most recognizable companies in the world and has a mass amount of brand recognition. Their famous cartoon character Mickey Mouse has become the main symbol of the company.

First, they ensure their customer excellence by having a strong brand and excellent customer service. For example, Disney park employees can recognize if a tourist is lost, help tourist with almost everything they need, and know how to use sign language.

Secondly, they do well on operational excellence which are ensure good value to customers while earn profitability for themselves, develop strong and steady relationships with vendors. For people work in Disney parks, they’re called “cast members” instead of “employees”. They don’t wear “uniforms”, they wear “costumes”. This well-defined company culture ensures their operational excellence.

Thirdly, Disney achieve a sustainable competitive advantage through their unique merchandise and products. The biggest segment of Disney is Media Networks, which covers Disney’s business in the cable network, TV network, radio network and digital services. The media network department uses differentiated strategies to target segments of different audiences. Disney also have a lot of unique retail products such as toys, clothing, furniture, accessories, etc. At last, locational excellence is an important strategy for Disney. Disney’s theme parks are all in the big cities with large population.

#3. When it comes to growth strategies they’re using on Disney Plus, product development is Disney Plus’s primary growth strategy. This strategy involves offering new products in the company’s current or existing markets that they continue making their own series. The other strategy is market development. Disney confirmed that the new streaming service will be available in North America on November 12, 2019. It will roll out in Europe from late 2019 to early 2020. Asia-Pacific will get Disney Plus between fall 2019 and fall 2020, while Latin America sees the service arrive in fall 2020. This means Disney Plus will have a whole global market in two years.

#4. Doing a SWOT analysis is necessary before entering the market. Here is my analysis for Disney Plus:

Strengths: Disney Plus will undercut Netflix on price. Disney Plus will cost $5.99 per month in the US. That’s a decent amount under Netflix’s $8.99 per month basic plan. Even more, Disney will launch a package for $12.99 a month, including Disney+, ESPN+ and advertised Hulu stream. This bundle of ESPN+ and Hulu will reduce user churn. Disney has various original movies, cartoons and TV series with a huge fans base, and Disney Plus will be the only place to watch those. Disney’s current customer base reduces customer acquisition costs.

Weaknesses: Apple announced that Apple TV+ will be launched in more than 100 countries on November 1st, it’s 11 days advantage of Disney streaming. Their monthly subscription fee for Apple TV+ is lower than Disney+. Apple will also provide one-year free streaming services to users who purchase Apple devices to attract more subscribers and gain more advantages in streaming media competition. Recently, Disney has confirmed that there will be no R-rated or MA-rated fare on Disney Plus, it would be the first streaming service of this size to not have mature-rated content.

Opportunities: Disney Plus could expand overseas markets like what they do with the Disney Parks and Resorts. It will increase the sales of Disney related products because more people are watching their movies and cartoons. In addition, the launch of Disney Plus might attract more investors to invest in Disney, therefore, the company’s stock price will increase.

Threats: Netflix is ​​still a giant in streaming media with a huge user base of 152 million, which is unmatched by other streaming media platforms in a short period of time. Disney is actually losing money in the process of building streaming service. Moreover, Disney might lose sales on the traditional disc because of Disney Plus.

#5. Disney’s TV Networks division has been experiencing user customer attrition. According to Disney’s 2018 financial report, ESPN Channel has a subscription volume of 86 million in the US, compared with 88 million subscriptions in FY2017, they lost 2 million US domestic subscribers in one year. In the same time, Netflix was doing their original content, attracted traditional TV audience into their own stream. It is a great strategy for Disney to enter the streaming service because it has become the most popular method for people to watch movies, original series, etc. As early as 2016, Disney intended to enter the streaming media industry. Disney invested $1 billion in a streaming company called BAMTech, which is considered to be the first step in Disney’s long-term battle into the streaming service business. In order to launch streaming service more quickly and maturely, Disney announced the acquisition of the 20th Century Fox, the deal was reached at $71.3 billion eventually. By 2018, Disney renamed BAMTech “Disney+”. Although there are weaknesses and threats, Disney Plus is needed in this network environment.

Citation

Grewal, Dhruv, and Michael Levy. Marketing. McGraw-Hill Education, 2020.

Frank T. Rothaermel, and Noorein Inamdar. The Walt Disney Company, 2019.

Team, Trefis. “ESPN Remains A Drag On Disney.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 10 Nov. 2017, https://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2017/11/10/espn-remains-a-drag-on-disney/#2b28414462f7.

The Walt Disney Company Fiscal Year 2016 Annual Financial Report

https://ditm-twdc-us.storage.googleapis.com/2016-Annual-Report.pdf

“DIS’s Competition by Segment and Its Market Share.” CSIMarket, https://csimarket.com/stocks/competitionSEG2.php?code=DIS.

“A Wall Street Analyst Explains Why 10 Million Disney Plus Subscribers Is the Magic Number That Could Supercharge the Company’s Stock (DIS) | Markets Insider.” Business Insider, Business Insider, https://markets.businessinsider.com/news/stocks/disney-plus-could-drive-inflection-point-for-disney-stock-2019-9-1028517469.

Tassi, Paul. “Disney Plus Will Only Show PG-13 Content, Giving Netflix And Amazon An Advantage.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 27 Aug. 2019, https://www.forbes.com/sites/paultassi/2019/08/27/disney-plus-may-only-show-pg-13-content-giving-netflix-amazon-and-apple-an-advantage/#23d1c2857695.

Bacon, Thomas. “Disney Will Release Worldwide By End Of 2021.” ScreenRant, Screen Rant, 11 Apr. 2019, https://screenrant.com/disney-plus-international-release-2021/.